The European Commission has submitted to member states a new draft of sanctions against Russia, including an oil embargo. Some member states that rely heavily on Russian energy sought exemptions.
Western media reported that the European Commission draft of the sixth round of sanctions against Russia includes within six to eight months gradually banning oil imports from Russia, but allowing Hungary and Slovakia to extend the transition period for several months; The Russian Savings bank and other large financial institutions on the sanctions list.
The European Union has imported 44 billion euros of fossil fuels from Russia since Russia launched its special military operation against Ukraine in late February, according to Finland's Energy and Clean Air Research Center.
The Institute for European and Global Economics in Brussels estimates that the European Union currently consumes about $450 million worth of Russian oil a day.
Among EU members, landlocked Hungary and Slovakia, which import most of their oil from Russia, cannot quickly find alternative supplies. Slovakia says the transition will take years. Some officials believe Bulgaria and the Czech Republic may also seek to opt out of oil sanctions against Russia.
Affected by the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk titanium nitride are still very uncertain.
Direct nitridation of titanium powder or TiH2:
The stoichiometric titanium nitride powder can be obtained by nitriding titanium powder in nitrogen or hydrogen atmosphere at 1273 ~ 1673K for 1h and repeated operation several times after the product is crushed.
It can also be nitrided with metal hydride TiH2, which can react below 1273K, and the equation is as follows:
The advantage of this method is that it is easy to operate and high quality titanium nitride powder can be obtained, but the disadvantage is that the price of raw materials is too high to batch production, and this process is easy to produce powder sintering phenomenon, resulting in loss.
TiO2 carbothermal reduction nitridation method:
The carbothermal reduction nitridation method of TiO2 uses TiO2 as raw material, carbonaceous graphite as reductant and reacts with N2 to form TiN. The synthesis temperature is 1380 ~ 1800 ℃ and the reaction time is about 15h. In this reaction environment, carbon reacts not only with oxygen, but also with titanium to form TiC, because the crystal lattices of titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium oxide are very close, and they are easy to form a solid solution.
The purity of TiN obtained by this method is generally not high, and the content of O and C is on the high side. In order to obtain TiN with low content of O and C, higher reaction temperature and longer reaction time are needed.
Microwave carbothermal reduction method:
Microwave carbothermal reduction is a redox reaction with inorganic carbon as reducing agent at higher temperature. The specific operation is as follows: using titanium oxide as raw material, heating carbon by microwave until the temperature reaches 1200 ℃, and keeping the reduction reaction at this temperature for 1 h, the titanium nitride powder is obtained.
Compared with the conventional method, the titanium nitride powder prepared by this method has the advantages of high purity, low synthesis temperature (100 ℃, 200 ℃ lower than the original) and short period (1pm 15 of the conventional method).
Chemical vapor deposition:
The chemical vapor deposition method uses gaseous TiCl4 as raw material and H2 as reducing agent to react with N2 to form TiN. The synthesis temperature is 1100 ~ 1500 ℃. This process is often used for coatings on metal and ceramic surfaces to enhance the hardness and wear resistance of ceramics and metals.
This kind of synthetic TiN has high purity, but low production efficiency and high cost. This process is a common method to coat TiN film on the surface of metal, ceramic and other articles to make it beautiful.
Self-propagating high temperature synthesis:
Self-propagating high temperature synthesis is also called combustion synthesis. In this method, the titanium powder (billet) is ignited directly in nitrogen (limiting a certain pressure), and the titanium powder is burned in nitrogen to obtain TiN products. This process has been widely studied and commercialized in Russia, the United States and Japan.
Mechanical alloying method:
The mechanical alloying method is to put titanium powder in the system of ammonia or nitrogen and use high-energy ball mill to make them interact with each other under the strong collision and agitation of grinding balls to obtain nano-titanium nitride. this is a new synthesis method. In China, Liu Zhijian and others use TiH1.924 powder instead of Ti powder to react with nitrogen. By using this high-energy ball milling process, after 100h high-energy ball milling in flowing ammonia, almost all TiH1.924 is converted into TiN, and the conversion rate has been greatly improved. And Zhou Li and others later used the same method to prepare nano-titanium nitride powder, and the reaction time was only 9 h.
Molten salt synthesis method:
Molten salt synthesis method has not been reported in the preparation of titanium nitride, but the preparation of titanium nitride by this method is a good research direction. In this method, the low melting point molten salt is used as the reaction medium, the reactants can be dissolved in the molten salt, and the whole reaction is completed in the atomic environment. After the reaction is completed, the salt can be dissolved and filtered with a suitable solvent to get the product.
The product obtained by this method has the advantages of high purity, simple operation, short reaction time, no stringent requirements on reaction temperature, easy to control the morphology and particle size of the product, and no agglomeration.
The sol-gel method is to mix the reactants evenly in the liquid phase, and then carry out the process of hydrolysis and condensation, and the reactants will form a transparent sol in the solution, which will form a gel after aging and slow polymerization. the gel is dried and solidified to get the materials we need.
Some organic solvents used in this method have toxic side effects and do some harm to the human body.
Titanium Nitride Price
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Gas prices in European countries are expected to triple if Russian supplies are restricted, according to a press release from Rystad Energy, a Norwegian Energy consultancy.
The price of natural gas in Europe was $1,200 per 1,000 cubic meters on Tuesday. The benchmark price is already 300 percent higher than a year ago. European gas prices are expected to continue to soar to $3,500 per 1,000 cubic meters if Russian supplies are restricted, according to Analysis by Monitor.
In 2021, Russia delivered 155 billion cubic meters of gas to Europe, accounting for 31 percent of its gas supply, according to an analysis by Monitor Advisors. It would be difficult for Europe to replace Russian gas, which would also destabilize the global LNG market and have a profound impact on Europe's population and economy.
The analysis also said that if Russia stopped supplies now, Europe's current gas reserves would be exhausted by the end of the year, setting in for a cold winter.
In addition, affected by the geopolitical factors, the supply of the titanium nitride is erratic and thus its prices are expected to go higher in the future.
Tungsten boride is a black powder with the following physical properties:molecular formula WB2,with metallic conductivity,soluble in aqua regia.…